With the age increasing, the body protection is decreased. Physiological damage caused by lipid peroxidation, especially reactions that endogenous superoxide free radicals in the body in the unsaturated fatty acids, resulting in unstable lipid peroxidation, and thus the decomposition of aldehydes, especially malondialdehyde aldehyde, which attacks phospholipids and proteins by the reaction to form lipid-protein complex, lipofuscin deposition in the cell, as a sign of cellular aging. Therefore, prevention and anti-oxidant has been a powerful tool for the treatment of skin aging, but also an important way for many other compounds to achieve anti-aging skin effect.
Are commonly used antioxidants include substances such as enzymes or enzymes of vitamin A, vitamin E, cysteine, ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, metallothionein, sulfhydryl papaya enzyme, coenzyme Q10 and so on. And some amino acids such as glycine, serine and salicylaldehyde with iron to form the condensation product 2: l complexes, inhibited by the reaction with hydroxyl radicals of iron-related, and can inhibit lipid peroxidation, also has anti- oxidation. Melatonin, estrogen and other hormones and is also related to reports.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the most in-depth study of cosmetics, the most widely used anti-oxidants, contain copper, zinc, manganese and iron metalloenzyme, widely present in various tissues of organisms, is the only to specific antioxidant enzyme superoxide anion. SOD from cattle, pigs and other extracts of red blood cells, also from spinach, cabbage, prickly pear, yeast and bacterial extracts. Now know that at least Cu. SOD, Mn. SOD, Fe-SOD, Zn-SOD and EC-SOD in five different SOD. SOD activity of the enzyme used as a cosmetic ingredient as affected by many factors, such as short half-life in vivo residence time is short, usually only 6-20min: 32 000 molecular weight around easily through the stratum corneum and the cell membrane and has antigenic and so on. To address these negative factors, the major domestic use molecular engineering approach to heparin, polyethylene glycol, dextran, biotin and other water-soluble macromolecules to their non-active groups or the use of molecular modifications to increase its transdermal absorption of liposomes, etc. embedding the new carrier.
Vitamin E, C is the first cosmetic application of anti-oxidants, a natural antioxidant, and their main function is to reduce the damage of living cells with hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl generation. Main role: vitamin E can reduce eye burn of erythema, which may be due to removal of oxygen free radicals induced by UV radiation, the reason: vitamin C is unstable in aqueous solution, it is difficult to be absorbed through the skin. In a proprietary formula, vitamin C preparations added zinc and tyrosine (Cellex-C), topical, the vitamin C levels in the skin 20 times higher than normal, the depth of penetration into the dermis 500 U m, tretinoin from the anti- oxidation, can block ultraviolet UVA and UVB damage to the organization.
In addition, vitamin C is considered a cellular factor that can directly stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagen. Vitamin C is a necessary component of collagen metabolism. L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate magnesium (VC-PMG) is another vitamin C preparations patented formula, which is more stable compounds have been used in Japan to pigmentation agent. In addition, the element germanium (Ge32) and certain herbal and marine extracts also has antioxidant effects reported.